Saturday, 11 July 2009

The Treaty of Hudaybia (part 1) - The Intention for 'Umrah & Journey to Makkah

The Hadiths that tell the Story of Al-Hudaybiyyah and the Peace Treaty that followed

Al-Bukhari, may Allah have mercy with him, recorded in his Sahih in `Book of Conditions' that Al-Miswar bin Makhramah and Marwan bin Al-Hakam, both narrated attesting to the truthfulness of the other, "

Allah's Messenger set out at the time of Al-Hudaybiyyah with several hundred of his Companions. When he reached Dhul-Hulayfah, he had the sacrificial animals garlanded and marked and resumed the state of Ihram for `Umrah.

He then sent several men from the tribe of Khuza`ah to gather news for him and then he proceeded. When he arrived at a village called Al-Ashtat, his advance regiment came back and said, `The Quraysh have gathered their forces against you, including Al-Ahabish tribes. They are intent on fighting you, stopping you, and preventing you.'

The Messenger said,

«أَشِيرُوا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ عَلَيَّ، أَتُرَوْنَ أَنْ نَمِيلَ عَلَى عِيَالِهِمْ وَذَرَارِيِّ هؤُلَاءِ، الَّذِينَ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يَصُدُّونَا عَنِ الْبَيْتِ؟»

(Give me your opinion, O people! Do you think we should attack the families and offspring of those who seek to prevent us from reaching the House)''

in another narration, the Prophet said,

«(أَ)تُرَوْنَ أَنْ نَمِيلَ عَلَى ذَرَارِيِّ هؤُلَاءِ الَّذِينَ أَعَانُوهُمْ، فَإِنْ يَأْتُونَا كَانَ اللهُ قَدْ قَطَعَ عُنُقًا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ، وَإِلَّا تَرَكْنَاهُمْ مَحْزُونِين»

(Do you think we should attack the families of those who helped the Quraysh If they come to defend against us, then Allah would have diminished the idolator forces. Or we leave them to grieve!)''

In another narration, the Prophet said,

«فَإِنْ قَعَدُوا قَعَدُوا مَوْتُورِينَ مَجْهُودِينَ مَحْزُونِينَ، وَإِنْ نَجَوْا يَكُنْ عُنُقًا قَطَعَهَا اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ. أَمْ تُرَوْنَ أَنْ نَؤُمَّ الْبَيْتَ فَمَنْ صَدَّنَا عَنْهُ قَاتَلْنَاه»

(If they remain where they have gathered, they do so in grief, fatigued and depressed. If they save their families, it would be a neck that Allah the Exalted and Most Honored has cut off. Or, should we head towards the House and if anyone prevents us from reaching it we would fight them) "

Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, said, "O, Allah's Messenger! You only intended to visit the House, not to kill anyone or start a war. Therefore, head towards the House and whoever stands in our way, then we will fight him.'' In another narration, Abu Bakr said, "Allah and His Messenger know that we only came to perform `Umrah not to fight anyone. However, anyone who tries to prevent us from reaching the House, we will fight him.''

The Prophet said,

«فَرُوحُوا إِذَن»

(Go forth then.)

In another narration, the Prophet said,

«فَامْضُوا عَلَى اسْمِ اللهِ تَعَالَى»

(Go forth, in the Name of Allah, the Exalted.)

"When they proceeded for a distance, the Prophet said,

«إِنَّ خَالِدَ بْنَ الْوَلِيدِ فِي خَيْلٍ لِقُرَيْشٍ طَلِيعَةً، فَخُذُوا ذَاتَ الْيَمِين»

(Khalid bin Al-Walid is leading the cavalry of Quraysh forming the front of the army, so take the path on the right.)

By Allah, Khalid did not perceive the arrival of the Muslims until the dust arising from the march of the Muslim army reached him, then he turned back hurriedly to inform the Quraysh. The Prophet went on advancing until he reached the Thaniyyah (i. e., a mountainous way) through which he could reach them.

The she-camel of the Prophet sat down. The people tried their best to cause her to rise, but it was in vain. So, they said, `Al-Qaswa' has become stubborn! Al-Qaswa' has become stubborn!'

The Prophet said,

«مَا خَلَأَتِ الْقَصْوَاءُ وَمَا ذَاكَ لَهَا بِخُلُقٍ، وَلكِنْ حَبَسَها حَابِسُ الْفِيل»

(Al-Qaswa' has not become stubborn, for stubbornness is not her habit, but she was stopped by Him Who stopped the elephant.)[the elephant of Abraha in Surah Fil]

Then he said,

«وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَا يَسْأَلُونِّي خُطَّةً يُعَظِّمُونَ فِيهَا حُرُمَاتِ اللهِ تَعَالَى إِلَّا أَعْطَيْتُهُمْ إِيَّاهَا»

(By the Name of Him in Whose Hands is my soul, if they ask me anything which will respect the ordinances of Allah, the Exalted, I will grant it to them.)

The Prophet then rebuked the she-camel and she got up. The Prophet changed his direction, until he dismounted at the farthest end of Al-Hudaybiyyah. There was a pit containing a little water which the people used in small amounts, and after a short time the people exhausted all its water and complained of thirst to Allah's Messenger . The Prophet took an arrow out of his quiver and ordered them to put the arrow in the pit. By Allah, the water started flowing and continued sprouting until all the people quenched their thirst and returned satisfied.

While they were still in that state, Budayl bin Warqa' Al-Khuza`i came with some people from his tribe, Khuza`ah. They were the advisers of Allah's Messenger who would keep no secret from him and were from the people of Tihamah.

Budayl said, `I left (the tribes of) Ka`b bin Lu'ay and `Amir bin Lu'ay residing at the abundant water of Al-Hudaybiyyah. They had milk camels with them, intending to wage war against you and prevent you from visiting the Ka`bah.'

Allah's Messenger said,

«إِنَّا لَمْ نَجِىءْ لِقِتَالِ أَحَدٍ، وَلكِنْ جِئْنَا مُعْتَمِرِينَ، وَإِنَّ قُرَيْشًا قَدْ نَهَكَتْهُمُ الْحَرْبُ، وَأَضَرَّتْ بِهِمْ، فَإِنْ شَاؤُوا مَادَدْتُهُمْ مُدَّةً وَيُخَلُّوا بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ النَّاسِ، فَإِنْ أَظْهَرْ، فَإِنْ شَاءُوا أَنْ يَدْخُلُوا فِيمَا دَخَلَ فِيهِ النَّاسُ فَعَلُوا، وَإِلَّا فَقَدْ جَمُّوا، وَإِنْ هُمْ أَبَوْا فَوَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَأُقَاتِلَنَّهُمْ عَلَى أَمْرِي هذَا حَتْى تَنْفَرِدَ سَالِفَتِي أَوْ لَيُنْفِذَنَّ اللهُ أَمْرَه»

(We have not come to fight anyone, but to perform `Umrah. No doubt, war has weakened Quraysh and they have suffered great losses. So if they wish, I will conclude a truce with them, during which they should refrain from interfering between me and others. If I have victory over those infidels, Quraysh will have the option to embrace Islam as the other people do, if they wish. They will at least get strong enough to fight. But if they do not accept the truce, by Allah in Whose Hands my life is, I will fight with them defending my cause until I get killed, but (I am sure) Allah will definitely make His cause victorious.)

Budayl said, `I will inform them of what you have said.' So, he set off until he reached Quraysh and said, `We have come from that man whom we heard saying something which we will disclose to you, if you should like.'

Some of the fools among the Quraysh shouted that they were not in need of this information, but the wiser among them said, `Relate what you heard him saying.' Budayl said, `I heard him saying such and such,' relating what the Prophet had told him.

Tafsir ibn Kathir - Surah al Fath