The Ansar and Muhajirin Defended the Messenger in the Battle of Uhud
Al-Bukhari recorded that Qays bin Abi Hazim said, "I saw Talhah's hand, it was paralyzed, because he shielded the Prophet with it.'' meaning on the day of Uhud.
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that Abu `Uthman An-Nahdi said, "On that day (Uhud) during which the Prophet fought, only Talhah bin `Ubaydullah and Sa`d [ibn Abi Waqqas] remained with the Prophet.''
Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib said, "I heard Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas saying, `The Messenger of Allah gave me arrows from his quiver on the day of Uhud and said, `Shoot, may I sacrifice my father and mother for you.'''
Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith. The Two Sahihs recorded that Sa`d bin Abi Waqqas said, "On the day of Uhud, I saw two men wearing white clothes, one to the right of the Prophet and one to his left, who were defending the Prophet fiercely. I have never seen these men before or after that day.'' Meaning angels Jibril and Mika'il, peace be upon them.
Abu Al-Aswad said that, `Urwah bin Az-Zubayr said, "Ubayy bin Khalaf of Bani Jumah swore in Makkah that he would kill the Messenger of Allah . When the Messenger was told of his vow, he said, `Rather, I shall kill him, Allah willing.'
On the day of Uhud, Ubayy came while wearing iron shields and proclaiming, `May I not be saved, if Muhammad is saved.'
He then headed to the direction of the Messenger of Allah intending to kill him, but Mus`ab bin `Umayr, from Bani Abd Ad-Dar, intercepted him and shielded the Prophet with his body, and Mus`ab bin `Umayr was killed.
The Messenger of Allah saw Ubayy's neck exposed between the shields and helmet, stabbed him with his spear, and Ubayy fell from his horse to the ground. However, no blood spilled from his wound. His people came and carried him away while he was moaning like an ox.
They said to him, `Why are you so anxious, it is only a flesh wound' Ubayy mentioned to them the Prophet's vow, `Rather, I shall kill Ubayy', then commented, `By He in Whose Hand is my soul! If what hit me hits the people of Dhul-Majaz (a popular pre-Islamic marketplace), they would all have perished.'
He then died and went to the Fire,
[فَسُحْقًا لاًّصْحَـبِ السَّعِيرِ]
(So, away with the dwellers of the blazing Fire!) [67:11].''
This was collected by Musa bin `Uqbah from Az-Zuhri from Sa`id bin Al-Musayyib.
How many people did the Prophet ever kill?
Ibn Taymiyyah said:
"…And bravery is defined by two things:
a) the strength and firmness of the heart in the face of fears, and
b) physical strength when fighting, such that one can kill with immense force and magnitude.
The first is the definition of bravery. As for the latter, it indicates physical strength and ability, and not everyone who possesses physical strength has strength of heart, and vice versa.
Because of this, you may find that it is said regarding a man who kills many people: 'He would do this if he had with him those who could guarantee his safety.' But, if he becomes scared, he is stricken with cowardice, and his heart becomes detached. And you would find the man with a firm heart who has not killed many people with his own hands firm in the face of fears, going forth in the face of hardships, and this is a characteristic that is required by the commanders, leaders, and forerunners of war, more so than the other, as the forerunner, if he is brave and firm at heart, will go forth and remain firm and will not be defeated, and his supporters will fight alongside him. If he was a coward and weak at heart, he will be humiliated, will not go forth, and will not remain firm, even if he is physically strong.
And the Prophet was the most complete in regards to this bravery that is appropriate for the commanders in war, and he did not kill with his hand anyone except Ubayy bin Khalaf. He killed him on the day of Uhud, and did not kill anyone else with his hand before or after this."
['Minhaj as-Sunnah an-Nabawiyyah'; 8/78]
Surah 'Aal Imraan - Tafsir ibn Kathir;